Geographical Inforamation Systems – Συστήματα Γεωγραφικών Πληροφοριών (GIS)

Spatial Reasoning & Geomatics Engineering – Λογική του Χώρου & Γεωπληροφορική


N-id: 0995 Κατηγορίες: , , , , Ετικέτα: Σελίδες: 416 Σχήμα: 17 x 24 Xρονολογία: 2003 ISBN: 960-431-882-9 Κωδικός Ευδόξου: 10945 Εκδόσεις: Εκδόσεις Ζήτη

A geographical information system (GIS) is a computer-based information system that enables capturing, modeling, manipulation, retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data.
The study of GIS has emerged in the last decade as an exciting multi-disciplinary subject, spanning such areas as topography & cartography, computing (computer graphics, databases), geography, photogrammetry, image processing and the environmental sciences. In particularly, the last few years have been a proliferation of GIS, employed by a wide range of users.
The growing interest in GIS reflects the fact that so much of information needed for management and decision making in government, local authorities and commerce is spatially referenced, yet conventional information technology (database systems) developed for commercial purposes is poorly suited to answering apparently simple queries framed in space and in time.
The treatment in this text book is unashamedly biased towards the computational aspects of GIS. Within information technology and computing science, GIS is a special interest of fields such as computer graphics, databases, geometric transformations, digital mapping, systems engineering and computational geometry, being not only a challenging application area but also providing open research issues for these disciplines.
The emphasis here is on understanding principles and techniques for representing, processing and visualizing spatial data in GIS application environments. The book provides a brief summary of applications of GIS and describes many of the techniques for data analysis, retrieval and graphical display that are to be found in scientific and commercial GIS applications.
This book is mainly intended for readers and students on undergraduate and master-level programmes – from computing or geomatics engineering background – who wish to learn about the issues that GIS engenders for information technology. It should also however be of considerable value to professionals using and implementing GIS in government, local authorities, industry and commerce.
Regarding the use of this text in teaching, coverage of all material presented here would be expected to extend over at least two academic semesters. It is anticipated that for teaching purposes the book will be used in combination with practical classes which provide experience of using a GIS environment (software package) to apply the methods described here. Practical exercises are also provided within the NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS (


Part A: Geographical Information Science: Overview & FundamentalsChapter 1: Overview of GIS

  1. Introduction
  2. Historical Roots: Milestones in GIS
  3. Defining GIS
  4. GIS Philosophy
  5. GIS Advantages
  6. GIS Functionality: Answers
  7. GIS Necessity
  8. GIS Components
  9. GIS Applications
  10. Conclusions
  11. GIS Technology: Introduction (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. GIS Functionality: Output (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  13. Additional Readings

Chapter 2: GIS Fundamentals

  1. Mapping Concepts, Features & Properties
  2. Map Features
  3. Map Characteristics
  4. Data Automation
  5. Digital Map – Information
  6. GIS Cartographic Appeal
  7. GIS Layering
  8. Maps & Map Analysis
  9. GIS Implemantations: Methodology (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  10. GIS Implemantations: Software (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  11. GIS Implemantations: Hardware (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. GIS Implemantations: Applications (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  13. Additional Readings

Chapter 3: GIS Projection Systems – Cartographical Data Modeling

  1. Introduction
  2. Cartographical Data Modeling
  3. Map Projections
  4. Classification of Map Projection
  5. Other Co-ordinate/Projection Systems relevant for GIS Applications
  6. Local Projection Systems
  7. Representation of Geographical Data
  8. Map Elements
  9. Classification of Maps
  10. Conclusions
  11. Geographic Information: Geo-Referencing (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. Further Readings
  13. Additional Readings

Chapter 4: Geographical Data Sets – GIS Digital Data Modeling & Mapping

  1. Geographical Data Sets
  2. GIS Principal Functions
  3. Digital Mapping Basics
  4. Digital Map Formats – How Data are Stored
  5. GIS Digital Data Formats (Modeling & Mapping)
  6. Representation of Real World Features in Vector & Raster Modeling
  7. Vector Modeling
  8. Attribute Data Management
  9. Conclusions
  10. GIS Functionality: Stucturing (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  11. GIS Functionality: Manipulating (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. Geographic Information: Data Concepts (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  13. Additional Readings

Part B: GIS Data Processing

Chapter 5: GIS Data Sources

  1. Conventional Data Sources
  2. Aerial Remote Sensing Data Sources
  3. Satellite (Remote Sensing) Image Data Sources
  4. Field Data Sources
  5. Existing Digital Data Sources
  6. Geographic Information: Data Sources (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  7. Geographic Information: Data Quality (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  8. Additional Readings

Chapter 6: GIS Data Capturing

  1. Introduction
  2. Data Capturing Methods
  3. Analogue Maps: Manual Digitizing & Scanning
  4. Errors in Digitizing – Verification & Quality Control
  5. GIS Functionality: Data Capturing (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  6. Additional Readings

Chapter 7: GIS Data Analysis

  1. GIS Analysis – What & Why?
  2. GIS Analysis – How?
  3. (a) Database Query
  4. (b) Overlay Operations
  5. (c) Network Analysis
  6. (d) Buffer Operations
  7. (e1) Digital Terrain Modeling (DTM)
  8. (e2) Surface Modeling
  9. (f) Statistical & Tabular Analysis
  10. Conclusions
  11. GIS Functionality: Analysis (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. Additional Readings
Part C: GIS Related Technologies: FundamentalsChapter 8: Image Processing & Analysis

  1. Introduction
  2. Digital Data
  3. Image Resolution
  4. How to Improve an Image
  5. Pre-Processing of Remotely Sensed Images
  6. Image Enhancement Techniques
  7. Spatial Processing
  8. Image Classification
  9. Further Readings
  10. Additional Readings

Chapter 9: Digital Photogrammetry (Aerial & Terrestrial Photography)

  1. Introduction
  2. Components of Aerial Photographic Systems
  3. Basic Negative-to-Positive Photographic Sequences
  4. Basic Geometric Characteristics of Aerial Photography
  5. Photogrammetry
  6. Central Perspective Geometry (Camera)
  7. Stereoscopy
  8. Photo Interpretation
  9. Additional Readings

Chapter 10: Remote Sensing

  1. Introduction
  2. Bands used in Remote Sensing
  3. Spectral Characteristics vis-à-vis Different Systems
  4. Energy Interactions, Spectral Reflectance & Colour Readability in Satellite Imagery
  5. Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing of Earth’s Resources – Process & Elements
  6. An Ideal Remote Sensing System
  7. Remote Sensing Satellites
  8. Digital Image Processing of Remote Sensing Imagery
  9. Conclusions
  10. Geographic Information: GIS & Remote Sensing Data Types (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  11. Geographic Information: GIS & Remote Sensing (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  12. Additional Readings

Chapter 11: Topography – Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

  1. Introduction
  2. GPS – Components & Basic Facts
  3. GPS Satellite Signals
  4. GPS Positioning Types
  5. GPS Accuracy
  6. Different Types of Answers given by a GPS
  7. Factors that Affect GPS
  8. Reference Station – Why?
  9. GPS Radios
  10. GPS Error Sources
  11. GPS – Calculating Locations
  12. GPS Uses
  13. GPS Applications
  14. GPS Applications in Europe, Asia & North America
  15. Future of GPS Technology
  16. Conclusions
  17. Geographic Information: Data & Maps (e-Learning Multimedia GIS)
  18. Additional & Selected Readings

Part D: Conceptional & Educational (Lecturing) Support

  • GIS Digital Tutorial
  • GeoInformation Sources (Associations, Bibliography, Acronyms, Magazines & Journals, GIS Education)
  • Glossary
  • GIS Lecturing Documentation (NCGIA Core Curriculum)
  • Examination Papers
  • GIS Cource Contract (ECTS)
  • Index (GIS Terms)